History of Hollywood: stages of development, interesting facts, photos
Hollywood is a neighborhood of the American city of Los Angeles, located in the state of California. Currently, it is known to everyone as the center of the world's film industry. The most famous actors and Directors live here, and the films that are produced here have the highest world rating. Having considered briefly the history of Hollywood, it can be noted that during its relatively short existence, cinema has undergone a powerful rise in development.
How it all started
In 1853, a single cabin stood on the site of Hollywood. Until the 70s of the 19th century, agriculture flourished in this area, and grain crops were successfully grown here. Telling a brief history of the birth of Hollywood, researchers recall the Wilcox couple. In 1887, they bought this piece of land and set up a farm here. The name" Hollywood " the couple gave it, marking its boundaries. Wood in translation means "forest", and holly-Holly (Holly) – trees that grew in large numbers on this territory. A few years later, the Wilcox couple began renting out part of their land. Gradually, a settlement began to grow around their land, which later became part of Los Angeles.
The birth of the film industry
The history of Hollywood was continued by Colonel William N. Zeling. He set up a film company in Chicago, and placed part of it in Hollywood, buying a plot of land from Wilcox. At that time, all those who did not have a patent for the film business were prosecuted. The Colonel was the rightful owner of the rights to film, equipment, and film copying, so his film business knew no obstacles. Immigrants played a major role in the development of the film industry. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a huge number of people began to move from Europe to America. Interest in cinema increased, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of cinema. New films were needed to meet people's needs. Since that time, the history of Hollywood studios begins.
First film companies
At this time, a number of film companies appeared. One of them is Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, which was founded by Russian-born Louis B. Mayer. Before the movie business, he was engaged in buying and reselling scrap metal.
Another Paramount film Studio was founded by Adolf Zukor, an apprentice furrier from Hungary. The Warner brothers, who advertise bicycles, founded the Warner Brothers film company. Famous Studio Universal was created by the German seller of clothes by Karl Lemmle. Thus, enterprising people who had nothing to do with the film industry, became the originators of the super-profitable movie business at that time, playing a defining role in the history of Hollywood.
Development of cinematography
One of the first films in the history of Hollywood was the Western "the Indian woman's Husband". It was created by Cecil B. de Mille. The nature of Hollywood, cozy houses, streets were ideal for shooting various films. As a result, more than 800 films were created here every year. In parallel with the development of cinema, the city's infrastructure related to the activities of film companies began to develop. At this time, the appearance of entertainment complexes, clubs, restaurants, and financial institutions is typical. The entire population of Hollywood was divided into two layers – the urban elite and the working class. New film studios were being built in place of the residential buildings on the main street. The development of the film industry in the history of Hollywood was very rapid. Movie studios, especially small ones, survived in the face of huge competition, narrowly avoiding bankruptcy. As a result, they began to unite in film trusts to strengthen their position. Later, they merged with rental companies. So the Warner brothers, paramount, and other film companies were born.
The era of light and sound cinema
1935 marked the release of the first full-length color film called "Becky sharp". It was directed by Ruben Mamulyan.
In 1953, the first film in widescreen format was released. It was a film, Henry Koster "the Shroud".
A huge advantage over silent movies was sound movies. However, the transition to it meant a revolution in cinema. There were a number of problems associated with this transition. The first of them is the purchase of expensive new equipment. In the beginning it was not perfect and had faults in the synchronization of actions and sounds. This system was subsequently improved. In addition, the shooting had to be done in complete silence. Movies were shot at night to avoid extraneous noise. The next major problem with the transition to sound films was the loss of foreign markets, which accounted for a third of Hollywood's profits. After all, silent films were sold to any country by attaching the text in the desired language. Over time, all these problems were solved, and the success of the sound film was stunning. In the early thirties of the 20th century, almost every American movie theater was equipped with sound equipment. The audience of cinemas has doubled.
A new wave in the development of cinema
By the sixties of the twentieth century, the mass audience, which was focused on the film production of Hollywood, is satiated with films made according to the template. The existing Studio system began to collapse. New ideas were needed that could interest a sophisticated viewer. On the next wave of development of Hollywood cinema, new names of Directors are emerging, including Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Francis Ford Coppola and others. Their ideas marked the beginning of a new era in the development of modern Hollywood cinema.
The first Hollywood star
Initially, actors who starred in American films gave their audience only their aliases. Thus, the audience did not know the real names of the actors, and the producers paid them the same amount of money. For the first time, this unspoken agreement between producers was violated by Universal, which signed a contract with actress Florence Lawrence. It was the first time she starred under her own name. The film company arranged a promotion for her before the film was shown, thanks to which she had a stunning success with an intrigued audience, becoming the first American star. As a result, the film company made a good profit. This practice has become widespread in other film companies. Since that time, Hollywood actors began to gain fame and fame, world celebrities began to appear. The stories of Hollywood stars became public.
Hollywood movie star
Bigwigs of the movie business quickly realized that nothing attracts the attention of viewers to a film like the participation of a star actor or actress. Movie stars began to appear at a rapid rate. Each of the actors had their own role. So, for Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton, the images of comedians were fixed, for Tom Mix and William S. HART-cowboys, LON Chaney-the king of horror. Women's images were divided into innocent girls (Mary Pickford and Lillian Gish), earth women (Greta Garbo and Gloria Swanson), vamp women (Paula Negri and Ted Bara), frivolous girls (Louise Brooks and Colin Moore).
Since the movie attracted millions of viewers, the public watched everything that happened around their idols with great interest. Especially a lot of attention to movie stars were attracted by the scandals. Having really appreciated the role of advertising of this kind, Hollywood strategists began to churn out scandalous stories about Hollywood stars, fueling public interest in them. Over time, the yellow press became the main source of information about the personal lives of stars.
Hollywood is booming. They started talking about it all over the world. All Actresses and actors dreamed of becoming Hollywood stars. A huge number of young people – boys and girls-have flocked to Hollywood in search of happiness. They all dreamed of a stellar career. With the light hand of the French journalist Jean-Francois Joslin, Hollywood became known as the" factory of dreams", a Mirage for seekers of wealth and fame. Here virtue and Vice, talent, beauty, alcohol, drugs and money are mixed. Star idols, surrounded by brilliance and extravagance, were admired by millions of moviegoers.
Hollywood detective stories
Scandals have become a part of the life of star actors. Some of them have become unusual Hollywood detective stories. In February 1922, Director William Desmond was shot with a revolver. The main suspect was his mistress, actress Charlotte Shelby. The motive of the crime was supposed to be revenge of the actress for the fact that the Director seduced her daughter. However, direct evidence of the guilt of the mother and daughter could not be found. The murder remained unsolved.
The next high-profile Hollywood detective story was the sudden death of actor Rudolfo Valentino at the age of 31. He played characters-lovers and was very popular with the audience. There was a lot of speculation about this unexpected death. The real reason was quite banal-peritonitis. Scandals in which Hollywood stars were seen are known to be a huge number.
The American public has condemned Hollywood for its immorality. The so-called "Haynes Code" was adopted, which forbade negative influence on the moral image of the viewer. However, few people followed these rules.
Love worthy of a film adaptation
One of the most striking love stories in Hollywood was the romance of first-rate stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. The relationship of these temperamental people was very stormy: joint shooting, passion, quarrels, drunken fights, breakups and reunions... They were divorced twice and remarried. The development of their relationship, which the stars did not hide from the very beginning, was watched by the entire world press.
Another great love story is the relationship of Hollywood star Frank Sinatra and star beauty ava Gardner. They have long hidden their meetings from society and the press. Frank was suffering from love for her, and Ava was playing with his feelings, having Affairs on the side. She was leaving him, and he was following her. In desperation, Sinatra almost died of an overdose of sleeping pills. After that, the long-awaited wedding took place. Marital happiness, which lasted for several years, was marred by constant scandals, scenes of jealousy, quarrels. After the divorce their relationship did not end: they continued to meet in secret. The love stories of modern Hollywood are also worthy of attention. Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta-Jones are actors with a 25 – year age difference. Their relationship began when Michael was 56 years old. Before that, he was married for 23 years. After meeting the sultry beauty Catherine, Douglas fell in love immediately.
He courted her handsomely for five months, and finally the couple announced that they intended to formalize their relationship. However, Michael's wife did not give a divorce, demanding huge compensation from his multi-million-dollar fortune. But that didn't stop Douglas. For the sake of a new lover, he gave his wife part of his fortune. In 2000, a Grand wedding took place. No one around them believed in the strength of this marriage Alliance. However, this marriage has become almost the most lasting in modern Hollywood.